To explore differences in bone mineral density (BMD) between dominant and non-dominant hip within levels of sport impact. BMD was higher in the non-dominant hip in high-impact sports, whereas the dominant hip had increased BMD for low-impact sports. The side-to-side differences were relatively small and not clinically relevant. PURPOSE: It is unknown whether there is difference in BMD at the hip between dominant and non-dominant sides in young athletes. The aims of this study were to explore the dominant-non-dominant differences in hip BMD in young athletes participating in low- and high-impact sports and to assess the effect of ground force impact on BMD. METHODS: Data was collected on University of Oxford athletes and controls (CG) between 2016 and 2018. Athletes were classified into two groups: high-impact sports (HIG) and low-impact sports (LIG). Total and regional measurements of both hips' BMD were recorded using a dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). Linear regression method was used to assess differences in BMD between and within groups. RESULTS: One hundred ninety-four athletes (HIG: n = 89, LIG: n = 105) and 48 controls were included in this study. Total hip and femoral neck BMD was higher in athletes compared to the CG (p < 0.01), with HIG recording highest levels of BMD. The BMD difference between the dominant and non-dominant sides was significant in the LIG, with BMD being higher in the dominant side. Conversly, BMD was higher in the non-dominant hip within the HIG. However, the hip asymmetries were not clinically relevant (%BMD difference < 3%). A significant interaction between side and sport group on BMD was observed. CONCLUSIONS: High-impact sports had significantly higher BMD compared with low-impact sports and CG. BMD in the dominant hip was significantly higher for the LIG and lower in the HIG; however, differences were not clinically relevant.
Bone density, DXA, Dominant foot, Hip, Sport