Remote Patient Monitoring Using Mobile Health for Total Knee Arthroplasty: Validation of a Wearable and Machine Learning-Based Surveillance Platform.
Ramkumar PN., Haeberle HS., Ramanathan D., Cantrell WA., Navarro SM., Mont MA., Bloomfield M., Patterson BM.
BACKGROUND: Recent technologic advances capable of measuring outcomes after total knee arthroplasty (TKA) are critical in quantifying value-based care. Traditionally accomplished through office assessments and surveys with variable follow-up, this strategy lacks continuous and complete data. The primary objective of this study was to validate the feasibility of a remote patient monitoring (RPM) system in terms of the frequency of data interruptions and patient acceptance. Second, we report pilot data for (1) mobility; (2) knee range of motion, (3) patient-reported outcome measures (PROMs); (4) opioid use; and (5) home exercise program (HEP) compliance. METHODS: A pilot cohort of 25 patients undergoing primary TKA for osteoarthritis was enrolled. Patients downloaded the RPM mobile application preoperatively to collect baseline activity and PROMs data, and the wearable knee sleeve was paired to the smartphone during admission. The following was collected up to 3 months postoperatively: mobility (step count), range of motion, PROMs, opioid consumption, and HEP compliance. Validation was determined by acquisition of continuous data and patient tolerance at semistructured interviews 3 months after operation. RESULTS: Of the 25 enrolled patients, 100% had uninterrupted passive data collection. Of the 22 available for follow-up interviews, all found the system motivating and engaging. Mean mobility returned to baseline within 6 weeks and exceeded preoperative baseline by 30% at 3 months. Mean knee flexion achieved was 119°, which did not differ from clinic measurements (P = .31). Mean KOOS improvement was 39.3 after 3 months (range: 3-60). Opioid use typically stopped by postoperative day 5. HEP compliance was 62% (range: 0%-99%). CONCLUSIONS: In this pilot study, we established the ability to remotely acquire continuous data for patients undergoing TKA, who found the application to be engaging. RPM offers the newfound ability to more completely evaluate the patients undergoing TKA in terms of mobility and rehabilitation compliance. Study with more patients is required to establish clinical significance.