Preoperative Prediction of Value Metrics and a Patient-Specific Payment Model for Primary Total Hip Arthroplasty: Development and Validation of a Deep Learning Model.
Ramkumar PN., Karnuta JM., Navarro SM., Haeberle HS., Iorio R., Mont MA., Patterson BM., Krebs VE.
BACKGROUND: The primary objective was to develop and test an artificial neural network (ANN) that learns and predicts length of stay (LOS), inpatient charges, and discharge disposition for total hip arthroplasty. The secondary objective was to create a patient-specific payment model (PSPM) accounting for patient complexity. METHODS: Using 15 preoperative variables from 78,335 primary total hip arthroplasty cases for osteoarthritis from the National Inpatient Sample and our institutional database, an ANN was developed to predict LOS, charges, and disposition. Validity metrics included accuracy and area under the curve of the receiver operating characteristic curve. Predictive uncertainty was stratified by All Patient Refined comorbidity cohort to establish the PSPM. RESULTS: The dynamic model demonstrated "learning" in the first 30 training rounds with areas under the curve of 82.0%, 83.4%, and 79.4% for LOS, charges, and disposition, respectively. The proposed PSPM established a risk increase of 2.5%, 8.9%, and 17.3% for moderate, major, and severe comorbidities, respectively. CONCLUSION: The deep learning ANN demonstrated "learning" with good reliability, responsiveness, and validity in its prediction of value-centered outcomes. This model can be applied to implement a PSPM for tiered payments based on the complexity of the case.