Hop Testing Lacks Strong Association With Key Outcome Variables After Primary Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction: A Systematic Review.
Losciale JM., Bullock G., Cromwell C., Ledbetter L., Pietrosimone L., Sell TC.
BACKGROUND: Single-legged hop tests are commonly used assessments in return to sport (RTS) testing after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction (ACLR). Although these tests are commonly used, their predictive validity has not yet been established. PURPOSE: To determine the strength of association between hop testing and RTS, knee reinjury, subjective report of knee function, and posttraumatic knee osteoarthritis (PTOA) after primary ACLR. Secondarily, to determine whether hop testing is able to predict a favorable result on the same outcome variables. STUDY DESIGN: Systematic review. METHODS: A systematic, computer-assisted literature search was performed in PubMed/MEDLINE, CINAHL, EMBASE, SPORTDiscus, Cochrane Library, and ClinicalTrials.gov. The PRISMA (Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses) guidelines were followed when conducting and reporting this review. Primary outcome variables for this review were self-report of knee function, return to preinjury level of activity, presence of reinjury, and presence of PTOA. The Oxford Centre for Evidence-Based Medicine Levels of Evidence tool was used to assess the level of evidence for each included study. Quality assessment of each included study was performed through use of a modified Downs and Black scale. Available metrics were tabulated based on outcome variables. RESULTS: Overall, 21 studies (4476 patients) met inclusion for this review. The majority of evidence (95.2%) was of moderate to high methodologic quality. The most commonly associated outcome measure was the International Knee Documentation Committee (IKDC) score, with Pearson correlation coefficients ranging from 0.20 to 0.60. The strength of association between the Knee injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score (KOOS) and hop testing ranged from -0.10 to 0.62 in 4 studies. In all, 10 studies examined the relationship between hop testing and RTS, with variable association statistics reported. No meaningful association was found between hop testing and knee reinjury in 2 studies. Worse preoperative hop testing was associated with PTOA in 1 study. CONCLUSION: Hop testing appears to possess fair association to subjective report of knee function measured by the KOOS and IKDC and a patient's ability to RTS after ACLR. Insufficient evidence is available to determine the relationship between hop testing and PTOA and knee reinjury. Predictive validity cannot be established based on available literature.