Increased Risk of Musculoskeletal Disorders and Mental Health Problems in Retired Professional Jockeys: A Cross-Sectional Study.
Mackinnon A-L., Jackson K., Kuznik K., Turner A., Hill J., Davies MAM., Jones ME., Delmestri A., Sanchez-Santos MT., Newton J.
To examine the prevalence of chronic disease and mental health problems in retired professional, male jockeys compared to an age-matched reference population. A cross-sectional study comparing data from a cohort of retired professional jockeys with an age-matched general population sample. Male participants (age range: 50-89 years old) were used to compare health outcomes of self-reported physician-diagnosed conditions: heart disease, stroke, diabetes, hypertension, osteoporosis, osteoarthritis, depression and anxiety between study populations. Conditional logistic regression models were used to estimate associations between study groups and health outcome. In total, 810 participants (135 retired professional male jockeys and 675 participants from the reference population) were included, with an average age of 64.7±9.9 years old. Increased odds of having osteoporosis (OR=6.5, 95%CI 2.1-20.5), osteoarthritis (OR=7.5, 95%CI 4.6-12.2), anxiety (OR=2.8, 95%CI 1.3-5.9) and depression (OR=2.6, 95%CI 1.3-5.7) were seen in the retired professional jockeys. No differences were found for the remaining health outcomes. Retired professional jockeys had increased odds of musculoskeletal disease and mental health problems compared to the general population. Understanding the prevalence of chronic disease and mental health problems in retired professional jockeys will help inform screening and intervention strategies for jockeys.