Short-term outcomes after anatomic total shoulder arthroplasty in patients with osteoarthritis versus osteonecrosis.
Navarro SM., Haeberle HS., Khlopas A., Newman JM., Karnuta JM., Mont MA., Ramkumar PN.
Background: The outcomes of anatomic total shoulder arthroplasty (TSA) for glenohumeral osteoarthritis (OA) have been extensively reported in the literature. However, there is a paucity of short-term outcomes data on perioperative and post-operative outcomes in patients receiving TSA for either glenoid or humeral head osteonecrosis (ON). We compared the short-term outcomes of TSA performed on patients who had glenohumeral OA and those who had ON. Specifically, we compared: (I) demographics; (II) length-of-stay (LOS); and (III) 30-day postoperative complication rates. Methods: Data from the American College of Surgeons National Surgical Quality Improvement Program (ACS NSQIP) was used to select 7,066 patients with a diagnosis of glenohumeral OA or ON who underwent TSA between January 1st, 2008 and December 31st, 2015. Propensity score matching was performed based on age, sex, race, and body mass index (BMI) with a 3:1 ratio of OA to ON patients. As a result, 387 patients who had a primary diagnosis of OA were compared with 129 patients who had ON. Analyses addressed perioperative complications and hospital disposition factors-including LOS and 30-day post-operative complications-using bivariate and logistic regression models. Results: Overall complication rates were low in both groups, at 6.1% and 5.4% for the ON and OA cohorts respectively. The ON cohort had more comorbidities, including higher Charlson/Devo and American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) scores (P<0.05). Hospital disposition factors were not statistically different between the 2 groups. While not statistically significant, the ON cohort had a longer average (21.1% longer, P>0.05), an increased risk for developing any complication [odds ratio (OR) =2.07; 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.94 to 4.57; P=0.07], and a 134% higher risk for developing a minor complication compared to the OA (OR =2.34; 95% CI, 1.01 to 5.42; P=0.047). Conclusions: Although the patient populations who develop ON or shoulder OA have differences, there are not statistically or clinically meaningful differences in the short-term outcomes after anatomic TSA. Future studies are required to examine if differences exist in the long-term follow-up between the two groups.