Kidney stone disease (nephrolithiasis) is a major clinical and economic health burden with a heritability of ~45-60%. We present genome-wide association studies in British and Japanese populations and a trans-ethnic meta-analysis that include 12,123 cases and 417,378 controls, and identify 20 nephrolithiasis-associated loci, seven of which are previously unreported. A CYP24A1 locus is predicted to affect vitamin D metabolism and five loci, DGKD, DGKH, WDR72, GPIC1, and BCR, are predicted to influence calcium-sensing receptor (CaSR) signaling. In a validation cohort of only nephrolithiasis patients, the CYP24A1-associated locus correlates with serum calcium concentration and a number of nephrolithiasis episodes while the DGKD-associated locus correlates with urinary calcium excretion. In vitro, DGKD knockdown impairs CaSR-signal transduction, an effect rectified with the calcimimetic cinacalcet. Our findings indicate that studies of genotype-guided precision-medicine approaches, including withholding vitamin D supplementation and targeting vitamin D activation or CaSR-signaling pathways in patients with recurrent kidney stones, are warranted.
Adult, Aged, Asian Continental Ancestry Group, Calcium, Diacylglycerol Kinase, European Continental Ancestry Group, Female, Genetic Variation, Genome-Wide Association Study, Genotype, Humans, Japan, Kidney Calculi, Male, Middle Aged, Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide, Prospective Studies, Proteins, Receptors, Calcium-Sensing, United Kingdom, Vitamin D