MicroRNAs in Axial Spondylarthritis: an Overview of the Recent Progresses in the Field with a Focus on Ankylosing Spondylitis and Psoriatic Arthritis.
Motta F., Pederzani A., Carena MC., Ceribelli A., Wordsworth PB., De Santis M., Selmi C., Vecellio M.
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To highlight the recent discoveries and lines of evidence on the role of microRNAs in ankylosing spondylitis (AS) and psoriatic arthritis (PsA), focusing on their expression profiling and mechanisms of action. RECENT FINDINGS: AS and PsA are chronic inflammatory musculoskeletal diseases with axial manifestations and represent an excellent model for studying microRNAs contribution to the disease pathogenesis, particularly through immunomodulation, inflammation, and bone remodelling, or their value as candidate diagnostic and prognostic biomarkers. MicroRNAs are single-stranded nucleotides able to regulate gene expression. They are a key component of the epigenetic machinery, involved in physiological and pathological processes. The contribution of microRNAs in AS and PsA (such as miR-29a in regulating bone metabolism) is highlighted by several works in the field but their utility as possible markers must be still confirmed, particularly in larger patients' cohorts.