RIPK1 activates distinct gasdermins in macrophages and neutrophils upon pathogen blockade of innate immune signaling
Chen KW., Demarco B., Ramos S., Heilig R., Goris M., Grayczyk JP., Assenmacher C-A., Radaelli E., Joannas LD., Henao-Mejia J., Tacchini-Cottier F., Brodsky IE., Broz P.
Injection of effector proteins to block host innate immune signaling is a common strategy used by many pathogenic organisms to establish an infection. For example, pathogenic Yersinia species inject the acetyltransferase YopJ into target cells to inhibit NF-κB and MAPK signaling. To counteract this, detection of YopJ activity in myeloid cells promotes the assembly of a RIPK1–caspase-8 death–inducing platform that confers antibacterial defense. While recent studies revealed that caspase-8 cleaves the pore-forming protein gasdermin D to trigger pyroptosis in macrophages, whether RIPK1 activates additional substrates downstream of caspase-8 to promote host defense is unclear. Here, we report that the related gasdermin family member gasdermin E (GSDME) is activated upon detection of YopJ activity in a RIPK1 kinase–dependent manner. Specifically, GSDME promotes neutrophil pyroptosis and IL-1β release, which is critical for anti-Yersinia defense. During in vivo infection, IL-1β neutralization increases bacterial burden in wild-type but not Gsdme-deficient mice. Thus, our study establishes GSDME as an important mediator that counteracts pathogen blockade of innate immune signaling.