Cookies on this website

We use cookies to ensure that we give you the best experience on our website. If you click 'Accept all cookies' we'll assume that you are happy to receive all cookies and you won't see this message again. If you click 'Reject all non-essential cookies' only necessary cookies providing core functionality such as security, network management, and accessibility will be enabled. Click 'Find out more' for information on how to change your cookie settings.

LEOPARD was a single arm, phase II study of lenalidomide (LEN) and alternate day prednisolone maintenance in patients with newly diagnosed multiple myeloma (MM) following autologous stem cell transplantation (ASCT). Sixty patients were enrolled. Estimated median potential follow-up was 44 m, median PFS was 38.3 m, median OS was not reached (landmark 36 m OS: 71.4%). Correlative immunohistochemistry performed on pre-ASCT trephines demonstrated high MM tumor cereblon (total/cytoplasmic) was associated with superior OS (p = .045, p = .031, respectively), whereas high c-Myc was associated with inferior PFS (p = .04). Patients with high cereblon (total/nuclear) were more likely to improve depth of response, whereas patients with high c-Myc were less likely, suggesting alternative/more effective post-ASCT strategies for patients with high c-Myc need identification. Peripheral blood immune profiling (mass cytometry) informed a more sustained response to LEN maintenance, demonstrating enrichment of activated/cytotoxic NK cells and cytotoxic T cells in patients with durable responses, contrasting with enrichment of B-regs in early relapsers.

Original publication




Journal article


Leuk lymphoma

Publication Date





2981 - 2991


Myeloma, cereblon pathway, lenalidomide maintenance, mass cytometry, Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols, Biomarkers, Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation, Humans, Lenalidomide, Maintenance Chemotherapy, Multiple Myeloma, Transplantation, Autologous