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Spondyloarthritis (SpA) is a heterogeneous group of chronic inflammatory diseases of unknown etiology. Over time, the plethora of cellular elements involved in its pathogenesis has progressively enriched together with the definition of specific cytokine pathways. Recent evidence suggests the involvement of new cellular mediators of inflammation in the pathogenesis of SpA or new subgroups of known cellular mediators. The research in this sense is ongoing, and it is clear that this challenge aimed at identifying new cellular actors involved in the perpetuation of the inflammatory process in AxSpA is not a mere academic exercise but rather aims to define a clear cellular hierarchy. Such a definition could pave the way for new targeted therapies, which could interfere with the inflammatory process and specific pathways that trigger immune system dysregulation and stromal cell activity, ultimately leading to significant control of the inflammation and new bone formation in a significant number of patients. In this review, we will describe the recent advances in terms of new cellular actors involved in the pathogenesis of SpA, focusing our attention on stromal cells and innate and adaptive immunity cells.

Original publication




Journal article


Semin immunopathol

Publication Date





265 - 277


Adaptive immunity, Cellular players, Innate immunity, SpA pathogenesis, Stromal cells, Adaptive Immunity, Humans, Immunity, Innate, Inflammation, Phenotype, Spondylarthritis