The Conundrum of Psoriatic Arthritis: a Pathogenetic and Clinical Pattern at the Midpoint of Autoinflammation and Autoimmunity.
Scrivo R., D'Angelo S., Carriero A., Castellani C., Perrotta FM., Conti F., Vecellio M., Selmi C., Lubrano E.
Psoriatic arthritis (PsA) is a chronic inflammatory condition characterized by psoriasis, synovitis, enthesitis, spondylitis, and the possible association with other extra-articular manifestations and comorbidities. It is a multifaceted and systemic disorder sustained by complex pathogenesis, combining aspects of autoinflammation and autoimmunity. Features of PsA autoinflammation include the role of biomechanical stress in the onset and/or exacerbation of the disease; the evidence of involvement of the innate immune response mediators in the skin, peripheral blood and synovial tissue; an equal gender distribution; the clinical course which may encounter periods of prolonged remission and overlapping features with autoinflammatory syndromes. Conversely, the role of autoimmunity is evoked by the association with class I major histocompatibility complex alleles, the polyarticular pattern of the disease which sometimes resembles rheumatoid arthritis and the presence of serum autoantibodies. Genetics also provide important insights into the pathogenesis of PsA, particularly related to class I HLA being associated with psoriasis and PsA. In this review, we provide a comprehensive review of the pathogenesis, genetics and clinical features of PsA that endorse the mixed nature of a disorder at the crossroads of autoinflammation and autoimmunity.