Clinical-like cryotherapy in acute knee arthritis of the knee improves inflammation signs, pain, joint swelling, and motor performance in mice
Castro PATS., Barbosa GM., Machanocker DH., Peres RS., Cunha TM., Cunha JE., Oliveira FFB., Ramalho FS., Russo TL., Cunha FQ., Salvini TF.
To assess the effects of clinical-like cryotherapy on inflammatory signs (in vivo neutrophil migration, cytokines, and joint inflammation), pain, joint swelling, balance, and motor coordination in mice with knee arthritis. Young C57BL/6 mice were randomly divided into three groups (8 to 10 mice per group): Control group: mice with no intervention; antigen-induced arthritis (AIA) group: mice sensitized and immunized with intra-articular (i.a.) injection of methylated bovine serum albumin (mBSA); and AIA + cryotherapy group: mice sensitized, immunized with i.a. injection of mBSA, and submitted to a clinical-like cryotherapy protocol. After 21 days of sensitization, AIA and AIA + cryotherapy groups received i.a. injection of mBSA (100 μg/joint) to induce joint inflammation, and a clinical-like cryotherapy protocol was applied to AIA + cryotherapy group (crushed ice bag, two cryotherapy sessions of 20 min every two hours). Experimental analysis was conducted in the initial (immediately after i.a. injection of mBSA) and final periods (two hours after the second cryotherapy session). The number of synovial fluid neutrophils, cytokine levels, joint histology, pain, joint swelling, and motor performance were also analyzed. Our results showed that clinical-like cryotherapy in mice with acute knee arthritis reduced inflammatory signs, pain, and joint swelling, and improved balance and motor coordination.