IntroductionTranexamic acid (TXA) has been shown to be effective at reducing peri-operative blood loss and haemarthrosis in arthroplasty and arthroscopic soft tissue reconstructions. Intra-articular application, as an injection or peri-articular wash, is becoming increasingly common. Recent studies have shown TXA has the potential to be cytotoxic to cartilage, but its effects on human tendon and bone remain poorly understood. The aim of this study was to investigate whether TXA has any detrimental effects on tendon-derived cells and osteoblast-like cells and determine whether there is a safe dosage for clinical application.Materials and methodsPrimary tendon-derived cells and osteoblast-like cells were harvested from hamstring tendons and trabecular bone explants, respectively, and analysed in vitro with a range of TXA concentrations (0 to 100 mg/ml) at time points: 3 and 24 h. The in vitro toxic effect of TXA was investigated using viability assays (alamarBlue), functional assays (collagen deposition), fluorescent microscopy and live/apoptosis/necrosis staining for cell death mechanisms in 2D monolayer and 3D collagen gel cell culture.ResultsThere was a significant (P 35 mg/ml resulted in significantly (P ConclusionsTopical TXA treatment demonstrated dose- and time-dependent cytotoxicity to tendon-derived cells and osteoblast-like cells with concentrations 20 mg/ml and above in isolated 2D and 3D in vitro culture. On the basis of these findings, concentrations of less than 20 mg/ml are expected to be safe. Orthopaedic surgeons should show caution when considering topical TXA treatments, particularly in soft tissue and un-cemented arthroplasty procedures.
Journal of orthopaedic surgery and research
Faculty of Medical and Heath Sciences, University of Auckland, Auckland, New Zealand. firstname.lastname@example.org.
Tendons, Humans, Blood Loss, Surgical, Tranexamic Acid, Antifibrinolytic Agents, Injections, Intra-Articular