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OBJECTIVES: Despite many shared risk factors and pathophysiological pathways, the risk of ischaemic heart disease (IHD) and myocardial infarction (MI) in interstitial lung disease (ILD) remains poorly understood. This lack of data could be preventing patients who may benefit from screening for these cardiovascular diseases from receiving it. METHODS: A population-based cohort study used electronic patient records from the Clinical Practice Research Datalink and linked Hospital Episode Statistics to identify 68 572 patients (11 688 ILD exposed (mean follow-up: 3.8 years); 56 884 unexposed controls (mean follow-up: 4.0 years), with 349 067 person-years of follow-up. ILD-exposed patients (pulmonary sarcoidosis (PS) or idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (PF)) were matched (by age, sex, registered general practice and available follow-up time) to patients without ILD or IHD/MI. Rates of incident MI and IHD were estimated. HRs were modelled using multivariable Cox proportional hazards regression accounting for potential confounders. RESULTS: ILD was independently associated with IHD (HR 1.85, 95% CI 1.56 to 2.18) and MI (HR 1.74, 95% CI 1.44 to 2.11). In all disease categories, risk of both IHD and MI peaked between ages 60 and 69 years, except for the risk of MI in PS which was greatest <50 years. Men with PF were at greatest risk of IHD, while women with PF were at greatest risk of MI. CONCLUSIONS: ILD, particularly PF, is independently associated with MI and IHD after adjustment for established cardiovascular risk factors. Our results suggest clinicians should prioritise targeted assessment of cardiovascular risk in patients with ILD, particularly those aged 60-69 years. Further research is needed to understand the impact of such an approach to risk management.

Original publication




Journal article



Publication Date





916 - 922


cardiac risk factors and prevention, coronary artery disease, Adult, Age Distribution, Age Factors, Aged, Aged, 80 and over, Case-Control Studies, Databases, Factual, Female, Heart Disease Risk Factors, Humans, Incidence, Lung Diseases, Interstitial, Male, Middle Aged, Myocardial Infarction, Myocardial Ischemia, Prognosis, Risk Assessment, Sex Distribution, Sex Factors, Time Factors, United Kingdom