Organic and inorganic nanoparticles (NPs) have attracted significant attention due to their unique physico-chemical properties, which have paved the way for their application in numerous fields including diagnostics and therapy. Recently, hybrid nanomaterials consisting of organic nanocompartments (e.g., liposomes, micelles, poly (lactic-co-glycolic acid) NPs, dendrimers, or chitosan NPs) encapsulating inorganic NPs (quantum dots, or NPs made of gold, silver, silica, or magnetic materials) have been researched for usage in vivo as drug-delivery or theranostic agents. These classes of hybrid multi-particulate systems can enable or facilitate the use of inorganic NPs in biomedical applications. Notably, integration of inorganic NPs within organic nanocompartments results in improved NP stability, enhanced bioavailability, and reduced systemic toxicity. Moreover, these hybrid nanomaterials allow synergistic interactions between organic and inorganic NPs, leading to further improvements in therapeutic efficacy. Furthermore, these platforms can also serve as multifunctional agents capable of advanced bioimaging and targeted delivery of therapeutic agents, with great potential for clinical applications. By considering these advancements in the field of nanomedicine, this review aims to provide an overview of recent developments in the use of hybrid nanoparticulate systems that consist of organic nanocompartments encapsulating inorganic NPs for applications in drug delivery, bioimaging, and theranostics.
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