Cookies on this website

We use cookies to ensure that we give you the best experience on our website. If you click 'Accept all cookies' we'll assume that you are happy to receive all cookies and you won't see this message again. If you click 'Reject all non-essential cookies' only necessary cookies providing core functionality such as security, network management, and accessibility will be enabled. Click 'Find out more' for information on how to change your cookie settings.

Understanding the signalling mechanisms controlling inflammatory cytokine production is pivotal to the research of both acute and chronic immune disorders. Tyrosine phosphorylation is one of the earliest events to occur in response to an immune challenge yet the role of specific tyrosine kinases in inflammatory cytokine production has been difficult to ascribe due to conflicting literature. Here we show that the pyrazolo pyrimidine compound PP2, a selective inhibitor of Src family kinases (SFK), can inhibit LPS-induced TNF production as well as a number of other inflammatory cytokines. In addition, we show similar effects of PP2 on cytokine production when induced by other TLRs, (1, 2 and 5-8), indicating that SFK are important common regulators of TLR signalling. PP2 suppressed the activity of both TNF and IL-10 driven reporter genes, suggesting that this activity is mediated at the level of transcription. Interestingly, however, PP2 had no significant effect on the activation of NF-kappaB, or on p42/44 ERK, p46/54 JNK or p38 MAPK phosphorylation. In contrast, PP2 did inhibit AP-1 nuclear accumulation in response to LPS. Taken together, these findings show that the Src kinases are able to control inflammatory cytokine production at the transcriptional level independently of NF-kappaB, and highlight the role of the AP-1 family of transcription factors as downstream mediators of Src kinase action.

Original publication




Journal article


Mol immunol

Publication Date





990 - 1000


Cells, Cultured, Cytokines, Humans, JNK Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases, Lipopolysaccharides, Macrophages, Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase 1, NF-kappa B, Phosphorylation, Pyrazoles, Pyrimidines, RNA, Messenger, Signal Transduction, Toll-Like Receptor 4, Transcription Factor AP-1, p38 Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases, src-Family Kinases