Cookies on this website

We use cookies to ensure that we give you the best experience on our website. If you click 'Accept all cookies' we'll assume that you are happy to receive all cookies and you won't see this message again. If you click 'Reject all non-essential cookies' only necessary cookies providing core functionality such as security, network management, and accessibility will be enabled. Click 'Find out more' for information on how to change your cookie settings.

As a member of Cnidaria, the body wall of hydra is structurally reduced to an epithelial bilayer with an intervening extracellular matrix (ECM). Biochemical and cloning studies have shown that the molecular composition of hydra ECM is similar to that seen in vertebrates and functional studies have demonstrated that cell-ECM interactions are important to developmental processes in hydra. Because vertebrate matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) have been shown to have an important role in cell-ECM interactions, the current study was designed to determine whether hydra has homologues of these proteinases and, if so, what function these enzymes have in morphogenesis and cell differentiation in this simple metazoan. Utilizing a PCR approach, a single hydra matrix metalloproteinase, named HMMP was identified and cloned. The structure of HMMP was similar to that of vertebrate MMPs with an overall identity of about 35%. Detailed structural analysis indicated some unique features in (1) the cysteine-switch region of the prodomain, (2) the hinge region preceding the hemopexin domain, and (3) the hemopexin domain. Using a bacterial system, HMMP protein was expressed and folded to obtain an active enzyme. Substrate analysis studies indicated that recombinant HMMP could digest a number of hydra ECM components such as hydra laminin. Using a fluorogenic MMP substrate assay, it was determined that HMMP was inhibited by peptidyl hydroxamate MMP inhibitors, GM6001 and matlistatin, and by human recombinant TIMP-1. Whole-mount in situ studies indicated that HMMP mRNA was expressed in the endoderm along the entire longitudinal axis of hydra, but at relatively high levels at regions where cell-transdifferentiation occurred (apical and basal poles). Functional studies using GM6001 and TIMP-1 indicated that these MMP inhibitors could reversibly block foot regeneration. Blockage of foot regeneration was also observed using antisense thio-oligo nucleotides to HMMP introduced into the endoderm of the basal pole using a localized electroporation technique. Studies with adult intact hydra found that GM6001 could also cause the reversible de-differentiation or inhibition of transdifferentiation of basal disk cells of the foot process. Basal disk cells are adjacent to those endoderm cells of the foot process that express high levels of HMMP mRNA. In summary, these studies indicate that hydra has at least one MMP that is functionally tied to morphogenesis and cell transdifferentiation in this simple metazoan.


Journal article



Publication Date





907 - 920


Amino Acid Sequence, Animals, Base Sequence, Cell Differentiation, Cloning, Molecular, DNA Primers, Escherichia coli, Extracellular Matrix, Gene Expression, Humans, Hydra, Matrix Metalloproteinases, Molecular Sequence Data, Morphogenesis, RNA, Messenger, Recombinant Proteins, Regeneration, Sequence Homology, Amino Acid