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There is a clear need to optimise the use of animals in research and to ensure that the studies that are done make a worthwhile contribution to scientific knowledge. Research that has an inappropriate study design, or is improperly analysed or interpreted, may mislead and is not defensible. Published reviews of the quality of design and analysis in clinical studies are used to see what lessons can be drawn in respect of animal research. The need for clear and full reporting of research is discussed.


Journal article


Alternatives to laboratory animals : ATLA

Publication Date



32 Suppl 2


31 - 39


Cancer Research UK/NHS Centre for Statistics in Medicine, Institute of Health Sciences, Headington, Oxford OX3 7LF, UK.


Clinical Protocols, Laboratory Animal Science, Research Design, Quality Control, Statistics as Topic