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There is a clear need to optimise the use of animals in research and to ensure that the studies that are done make a worthwhile contribution to scientific knowledge. Research that has an inappropriate study design, or is improperly analysed or interpreted, may mislead and is not defensible. Published reviews of the quality of design and analysis in clinical studies are used to see what lessons can be drawn in respect of animal research. The need for clear and full reporting of research is discussed.

Original publication




Journal article


Altern lab anim

Publication Date



32 Suppl 2


31 - 39


Clinical Protocols, Laboratory Animal Science, Quality Control, Research Design, Statistics as Topic