Cookies on this website

We use cookies to ensure that we give you the best experience on our website. If you click 'Accept all cookies' we'll assume that you are happy to receive all cookies and you won't see this message again. If you click 'Reject all non-essential cookies' only necessary cookies providing core functionality such as security, network management, and accessibility will be enabled. Click 'Find out more' for information on how to change your cookie settings.

During tumour progression, oxygen tension in the microenvironment surrounding tumour cells is reduced, resulting in hypoxia. It is well established that cancer cells resist the negative effects of hypoxia by inducing angiogenesis predominantly via the activity of transcription factor hypoxia-inducible factor-1 (HIF-1). However, more recently HIF-1α has also been linked to increased invasive potential, although the molecular mechanisms remain to be defined. Invasive cancer cells are thought to employ membrane protrusions, termed invadopodia, to achieve matrix degradation. While many invadopodia components have been identified, signalling pathways that link extracellular stimuli to invadopodia formation remain largely unknown. Indeed, the relationship between invadopodia formation and HIF-1α has not been explored. We now report that HIF-1α is a driver of invadopodia formation. Furthermore, we have identified an important, direct and novel link between the Rho family activator β-PIX, HIF-1α and invadopodia formation. Indeed, we find that β-PIX expression is essential for invadopodia formation. In conclusion, we identify a new HIF-1α mechanistic pathway and suggest that β-PIX is a novel downstream signalling mediator during invadopodia formation.

Original publication




Journal article


Open biol

Publication Date





hypoxia, invadopodia, β-PIX, Amino Acids, Dicarboxylic, Cell Hypoxia, Cell Line, Tumor, HEK293 Cells, Humans, Hypoxia-Inducible Factor 1, alpha Subunit, RNA Interference, RNA, Messenger, RNA, Small Interfering, Rho Guanine Nucleotide Exchange Factors, Up-Regulation