Cookies on this website

We use cookies to ensure that we give you the best experience on our website. If you click 'Accept all cookies' we'll assume that you are happy to receive all cookies and you won't see this message again. If you click 'Reject all non-essential cookies' only necessary cookies providing core functionality such as security, network management, and accessibility will be enabled. Click 'Find out more' for information on how to change your cookie settings.

Direct comparisons of health-related quality of life (HRQoL) outcomes between non-randomized groups might be biased, as outcomes are confounded by imbalance in pre-treatment patient characteristics. Such bias can be reduced by adjusting on observed covariates. This is the setting of HRQoL comparisons with reference data, where age and gender adjustment is commonly used for this purpose. However, other observed covariates can be used to lessen this bias and yield more precise estimates. The objective of this study is to show that more accurate HRQoL comparisons with reference data can be obtained, accounting for few covariates in addition to age and gender by a propensity score matching approach.

Original publication




Journal article


Stat med

Publication Date





5119 - 5132


health-related quality of life, propensity score matching, reference data, selection bias, Bias, Blindness, Computer Simulation, Female, Humans, Male, Propensity Score, Quality of Life, Surveys and Questionnaires