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A range of zwitterionic acrylic acid derivatives, buffering in the neutral and basic pH ranges, have been synthesized by the Mannich reaction of malonic acid, formaldehyde and a secondary amine. These compounds include 2-(4-morpholinomethyl)propenoic acid pK2 7.59 +/- 0.03 (23 degrees C), 2-[bis(2-hydroxyethyl)aminomethyl]propenoic acid pK2 approximately 8.6 (20 degrees C), 2-[bis(2-hydroxypropyl) aminomethyl]propenoic acid PK2 approximately 8.7 (20 degrees C), 2-[N-(2-hydroxyethyl)-N-methylaminomethyl]propenoic acid pK2 9.22+/-0.08 (22 degrees C), 2-[N-ethyl-N-(2hydroxyethyl)aminomethyl]-propenoic acid pK2 approximately 9.6 (20 degrees C), and 2-[4-(2-carboxyprop-2-enyl)piperazinylmethyl]propenoic acid, which has a sigmoidal buffering profile over the pH range 3-10. These zwitterionic acrylic acid buffers were successfully copolymerized with acrylamide to prepare immobilized pH gradients (IPGs) in the neutral to alkaline portion of the pH range. Bovine erythrocyte carbonic anhydrase isozymes were resolved on a pH 5-8 IPG prepared using 2-[4-(2-carboxyprop-2-enyl)piperazinylmethyl]propenoic acid as the immobilized buffer, and horse heart myoglobin was focused on pH 7.1-8.1 and pH 7.5-7.7 IPGs, using 2-(4-morpholinomethyl)propenoic acid as the immobilized buffer. In both cases the pK 9.3 Immobiline compound was used as the strongly basic titrant. These new compounds, besides possessing more hydrophilic residues than the corresponding commercial basic acrylamido buffers (Immobilines), resist hydrolysis at alkaline pH values.

Original publication




Journal article



Publication Date





1590 - 1595


Acrylates, Animals, Buffers, Cattle, Horses, Hydrogen-Ion Concentration, Isoelectric Focusing, Molecular Structure