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OBJECTIVE: The aim was to review a pathway of care for diabetic patients found to have retinal artery emboli detected by retinal screening. DESIGN: This was a retrospective review of a pathway agreed in 2001 by a multidisciplinary team. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The prospectively collected Gloucestershire Diabetic Retinal Screening Programme database was reviewed; patients sent for carotid duplex imaging underwent review of their scan results and their casenotes. RESULTS: The prevalence of retinal emboli was 214 out of 25,299 diabetic patients who had retinal screening (0.85%). Some 200 diabetic patients underwent carotid duplex imaging; 23 had ipsilateral and 2 had contralateral carotid stenosis > 70%. Of these, ten patients underwent carotid endarterectomy without any major morbidity. CONCLUSIONS: [corrected] A pathway was established for the small number of patients with retinal emboli, and could be tested in other populations.

Original publication




Journal article


Eur j vasc endovasc surg

Publication Date





153 - 157


Aged, Aged, 80 and over, Angioplasty, Asymptomatic Diseases, Carotid Stenosis, Critical Pathways, Diabetic Retinopathy, Endarterectomy, Carotid, England, Female, Fluorescein Angiography, Humans, Interdisciplinary Communication, Male, Mass Screening, Middle Aged, Patient Care Team, Predictive Value of Tests, Prevalence, Retinal Artery Occlusion, Retrospective Studies, Severity of Illness Index, Treatment Outcome, Ultrasonography, Doppler, Duplex