Identification of risk factors for radiographic hyperparathyroidism in 422 patients with end-stage renal disease: development of a clinical predictive index.
Pazianas M., Phillips ME., MacRae KD., Eastwood JB.
The hand radiographs of 422 patients with end-stage renal failure were graded for severity of subperiosteal resorption. Two hundred and seventy-three patients (64.7%) had no evidence of resorption; 114 (27.0%) showed resorption, in 32 of whom it was severe (7.6% of the total). Thirty-five patients (8.3%) were assessed as having doubtful evidence of subperiosteal resorption. Age, gender, race, renal diagnosis, duration of renal failure and vitamin D status were assessed as potential risk factors for the development of subperiosteal resorption. Duration of renal failure, female gender, young age, and certain renal diagnostic groups namely obstructive uropathy, unknown diagnosis, presumed glomerulonephritis and tubulointerstitial disease emerged as independent risk factors. Diabetic patients appeared to be least at risk of developing subperiosteal resorption. Patients whose renal failure was of unknown duration showed a degree of risk similar to those whose duration was < 2 years. In order to identify prospectively patients likely to develop subperiosteal resorption by the time they reach renal replacement therapy, the relative risks were used to create a risk index. Use of such an index might allow prophylactic treatment to be given to those particularly at risk. The concept of a risk index requires testing by a prospective study, which is in progress.