Extracellular Ca2+ sensing by the osteoclast.
Zaidi M., Alam AS., Huang CL., Pazianas M., Bax CM., Bax BE., Moonga BS., Bevis PJ., Shankar VS.
An increasing number of cell types appear to detect changes in the extracellular Ca2+ concentration and and accordingly modify their function. We review recent evidence for the existence and function of such a mechanism in the osteoclast. Elevated external [Ca2+] in the mM range reduces bone resorption and results in motile changes in the cells. These changes may partly result from elevations of cytosolic [Ca2+] triggered through activation of a surface Ca2+ receptor. Closer analyses of the increases in cytosolic [Ca2+] associated with receptor activation are hindered by the action of this ion both as extracellular agonist and intracellular second messenger. Variations in the peak cytosolic [Ca2+] response to external Ca2+ with changes in cell membrane potential by K+ and valinomycin establish a contribution from extracellular Ca2+. Use of CIO4-, Ni2+ and Cd2+ as surrogate activators in low extracellular [Ca2+] indicate a contribution from Ca2+ release from intracellular stores as well. Such agonists also modify Ca2+ redistribution in other systems, such as skeletal muscle. Thus, we may gain insights into osteoclast extracellular Ca2+ detection and transduction from known features of more well-characterised cell systems.