Tumor enzymes and prognosis in transitional cell carcinoma of the bladder: prediction of risk of progression in patients with superficial disease.
Deshpande N., Mitchell IP., Hayward SW., Love S., Towler JM.
The activities of 6 enzymes of carbohydrate metabolism were estimated in superficial transitional cell carcinomas from 103 patients undergoing transurethral resection of the bladder for the first time. The patients were followed by quarterly endoscopic examinations for a maximum of 81 months (median 33 months). During followup 24 patients had progressive disease. The activities of phosphofructokinase and phosphohexose isomerase were significantly lower in tumors from patients whose disease had superficially invaded the lamina propria (stage pT1) than in others in whom it was confined to the bladder mucosa (stage pTa). Similarly the activities of the 2 enzymes were significantly higher in well differentiated (grade 1) than in moderately well differentiated (grade 2) carcinomas. Univariate analyses using the log rank test showed that neither pathological stage nor malignancy grade of the carcinoma was a significant factor in predicting the risk of progression. Of the 6 enzymes, below median activities of phosphofructokinase, lactate dehydrogenase and phosphohexose isomerase were associated with a significantly increased risk of progression in these patients. Multivariate analyses using Cox's proportional hazards model showed that the activity of lactic dehydrogenase in superficial transitional cell carcinoma is an independent prognostic factor in predicting the risk of progression. It is postulated that the measurements of the activities of the 3 enzymes in tumors from patients with superficial transitional cell carcinoma might help to select individual patients with a high risk of progression for adjuvant intravesical treatments.