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N-of-1 trials provide a mechanism for making evidence-based treatment decisions for an individual patient. They use key methodological elements of group clinical trials to evaluate treatment effectiveness in a single patient, for situations that cannot always accommodate large-scale trials: rare diseases, comorbid conditions, or in patients using concurrent therapies. Improvement in the reporting and clarity of methods and findings in N-of-1 trials is essential for reader to gauge the validity of trials and to replicate successful findings. A Consolidated Standards of Reporting Trials (CONSORT) extension for N-of-1 trials (CENT 2015) provides guidance on the reporting of individual and series of N-of-1 trials. CENT provides additional guidance for 14 of the 25 items of the CONSORT 2010 checklist, recommends a diagram for depicting an individual N-of-1 trial, and modifies the CONSORT flow diagram to address the flow of a series of N-of-1 trials. The rationale, development process, and CENT 2015 checklist and diagrams are reported in this document.

Original publication




Journal article


J clin epidemiol

Publication Date





9 - 17


CENT, CONSORT, N-of-1, Reporting guideline, Biomedical Research, Clinical Trials as Topic, Guidelines as Topic, Humans, Publishing, Research Design, Research Report, Terminology as Topic