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The recently identified epidermal growth factor-related peptide cripto-1 has been previously implicated in the development of the malignant phenotype. The identification of gene products that can act as prognostic markers in bladder cancer would be value in determining the management of this heterogeneous group of patients. This study examines cripto-1 expression in benign and malignant bladder using immunohistochemical techniques. The expression of cripto-1 protein in benign and malignant bladder was examined in 45 bladder tumours (Ta/T1 n = 26, T2 n = 5, T3/T4 n = 14) and six benign controls. All 45 tumours showed positive cytoplasmic staining for cripto-1, including areas of carcinoma in situ. None of the six benign controls showed any evidence of positive cripto-1 staining. Twenty-three (60 per cent) bladder tumours had areas of papillary tumour that showed strong positive staining for cripto-1 as opposed to six (29 per cent) sections of histologically normal urothelium adjacent to tumour (P < 0.05). There was no association between cripto-1 staining and tumour grade, stage, or clinical outcome. Cripto-1 protein appears to be specifically expressed in malignant and benign adjacent urothelium of patients with bladder cancer. Its clinical significance, however, remains to be determined.

Original publication




Journal article


J pathol

Publication Date





108 - 111


Aged, Aged, 80 and over, Biomarkers, Tumor, Carcinoma in Situ, Carcinoma, Transitional Cell, Epidermal Growth Factor, Female, GPI-Linked Proteins, Growth Substances, Humans, Immunoenzyme Techniques, Intercellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins, Male, Membrane Glycoproteins, Middle Aged, Neoplasm Invasiveness, Neoplasm Proteins, Urinary Bladder, Urinary Bladder Neoplasms