Occurrence of Raynaud's phenomenon in children ages 12-15 years: prevalence and association with other common symptoms.
Jones GT., Herrick AL., Woodham SE., Baildam EM., Macfarlane GJ., Silman AJ.
OBJECTIVE: Although Raynaud's phenomenon (RP) in adults is frequently reported as having been present since childhood, there have been no studies on the prevalence of RP in children. This study was undertaken to ascertain the prevalence of RP in children ages 12-15 years and to determine whether, as with other commonly reported symptoms, there were any associations with adverse psychosocial factors. METHODS: A previously validated self-administered RP questionnaire was distributed to 903 children ages 12-15 years, from 28 schools. The questionnaire also included questions on other common childhood symptoms and on adverse psychosocial factors. RESULTS: Seven hundred twenty children responded (80%), in whom the prevalence of RP was 15%. This was higher in girls (18% versus 12%) and increased with age. After adjustment for age and sex, there was an association with reporting of current pain, both in the arm/shoulder region and elsewhere in the body. There were no associations with psychosocial variables. CONCLUSION: RP is frequent in children ages 12-15 years. Unlike other common childhood symptoms, RP showed no association with psychosocial factors in this study.