Depression and long chain n-3 fatty acids in adipose tissue in adults from Crete.
Mamalakis G., Kalogeropoulos N., Andrikopoulos N., Hatzis C., Kromhout D., Moschandreas J., Kafatos A.
BACKGROUND: Only one study has investigated the relationship of essential fatty acids in the adipose tissue with depression in adults and suggested an inverse relationship between docosahexaenoic acid (22:6 n-3) (DHA) and depression. OBJECTIVE: To examine the relation between adipose tissue polyunsaturated fatty acids especially n-3 and n-6 fatty acids, an index of long-term or habitual fatty acid intake, and depression in adults. DESIGN: Cross-sectional study of healthy adults from the island of Crete. SETTING: The Preventive Medicine and Nutrition Clinic, University of Crete, Greece. SUBJECTS: A total of 130 healthy adults (59 males, 71 females) aged 22-58 years. The sample was a sub-sample of the Greek ApoEurope study group. METHODS: Fatty acids were determined by gas chromatography in adipose tissue. Information about depression was obtained through the Zung Self-rating Depression Scale. RESULTS: Adipose tissue DHA was inversely related with depression. Multiple linear regression analysis taking into account the possible confounding effect of age, gender, body mass index, smoking and educational level confirmed this association. CONCLUSIONS: The inverse relationship between adipose DHA and depression in adults, replicates findings of a previous study. This relationship indicates that a low long-term dietary intake of DHA is associated with an increased risk for depression in adults.