Nutrigenomics Integrating Genomic Approaches into Nutrition Research
Ferguson LR., Philpott M., Barnett MPG.
This chapter gives an account of Nutrigenomics, which plays an important role in integrating genomic approaches into nutrition research. Nutrigenomics (sometimes called nutritional genomics) considers the interactions between foods or dietary supplements and an individual's genome and the consequent downstream effects on their phenotype. It offers a multi-level systems biology model that is both flexible and rigorous. Some newer tools provide a sensitivity that has been previously lacking. The Nutrigenomics New Zealand model provides an approach towards personalized, genotype-based nutrition that has the potential to provide food products and personalized advice to benefit health at the individual or population level. There is convincing evidence that single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in certain genes may profoundly influence the biological response to nutri ents. However, effects of single-gene variants on risk or risk factor levels of a complex disease tend to be small and inconsistent. Increased sensitivity of current biological measurements and methods of integrating information on combinations of relevant SNPs or copy-number variants in different genes have become necessary to move the field to a higher dimension. There are only sporadic examples of clinical trials utilizing these technologies and many of the challenges are in bioinformatics, especially in relation to reducing the complexity of multidimensional data sets. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.