Histologic and clinical features of primary and secondary vasculitis: a retrospective study of 42 dogs (2004-2011).
Swann JW., Priestnall SL., Dawson C., Chang Y-M., Garden OA.
Inflammation of the blood vessel wall has been reported infrequently in dogs, and it may occur without apparent cause (primary vasculitis) or as a pathologic reaction to a range of initiating insults (secondary vasculitis). The aims of our study were to report histologic, clinical, and survival data from a large series of cases with primary and secondary vasculitis, and to compare the clinical parameters and outcome data between groups. Clinical data was collected retrospectively from the medical records of 42 client-owned dogs with a histologic diagnosis of primary or secondary vasculitis, and follow-up information was obtained. Cases were grouped according to clinical and histologic descriptors, and biochemical, hematologic, and survival data was compared between groups. Several forms of primary vasculitis were observed, and vascular inflammation was observed in conjunction with numerous other diseases. Female dogs were more likely to develop primary vasculitis, and serum globulin concentration was greater in dogs with primary vasculitis compared to those with underlying disease. All dogs with primary vasculitis of the central nervous system died or were euthanized shortly after presentation, but other forms of primary vasculitis could be managed effectively. In conclusion, presentation of clinical cases in this series was variable, and there did not appear to be well-defined vasculitic syndromes as described in people.