Gene and protein expression of protease-activated receptor 2 in structural and inflammatory cells in the nasal mucosa in seasonal allergic rhinitis.
Dinh QT., Cryer A., Trevisani M., Dinh S., Wu S., Cifuentes LB., Feleszko WK., Williams A., Geppetti P., Fan Chung K., Heppt W., Klapp BF., Fischer A.
BACKGROUND: Protease-activated receptor 2 (PAR 2) has been shown to be responsible for trypsin and mast cell tryptase-induced airway inflammation. Here, the present study aimed to explore the expression of PAR 2 in the nasal mucosa of seasonal allergic rhinitis (SAR). METHODS: Study subjects were recruited for the study by medical history, physical examination and laboratory screening tests. Using immunohistochemistry, laser-assisted cell picking and subsequently real-time PCR, nasal mucosa biopsies of SAR patients were investigated for PAR 2 gene and protein expression in complex tissues of the nasal mucosa. RESULTS: Gene and protein expression of PAR 2 was firstly detected in nasal mucosa of SAR patients. The relative gene expression level of PAR 2 was significantly increased in complex tissues of the nasal mucosa of SAR (6.21+/-4.02 vs. controls: 1.38+/-0.86, P=0.004). Moreover, PAR 2 mRNA expression in epithelial cells (SAR: 4.78+/-4.64 vs. controls: 0.84+/-0.61, P=0.003) but not in mucus (SAR: 1.51+/-1.15 vs. controls: 1.35+/-1.02, P=0.78) and endothelial cells (SAR: 1.20+/-0.57 vs. controls: 1.73+/-1.30, P=0.5) was found to be significantly changed in the nasal mucosa in SAR. Using double immunohistochemistry the present study demonstrated that the total numbers of mast cells (P=0.0003) and eosinophils (P=0.03) and the numbers of eosinophils expressing PAR 2 (P=0.006) were significantly elevated in the nasal mucosa of SAR compared with the controls. CONCLUSION: The abundant presence and distribution of gene and protein expression of PAR 2 in different cell types in the nasal mucosa under normal situation, the increased expression of PAR 2 in epithelial cells and the increased number of eosinophils with PAR 2 suggest that PAR 2 may contribute to the pathogenesis of allergic diseases such as SAR.