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Retinal tissue is damaged during inflammation in Multiple Sclerosis. We assessed molecular changes in inflamed murine retinal cultures by Raman spectroscopy. Partial Least Squares-Discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) was able to classify retina cultures as inflamed with high accuracy. Using Multivariate Curve Resolution (MCR) analysis, we deconvolved 6 molecular components suffering dynamic changes along inflammatory process. Those include the increase of immune mediators (Lipoxygenase, iNOS and TNFα), changes in molecules involved in energy production (Cytochrome C, phenylalanine and NADH/NAD+) and decrease of Phosphatidylcholine. Raman spectroscopy combined with multivariate analysis allows monitoring the evolution of retina inflammation.

Original publication




Journal article


J biophotonics

Publication Date





724 - 734


Multiple Sclerosis, Raman spectroscopy, molecular imaging, multivariate curve resolution, neuroinflammation, retina ganglion cells, Animals, Cells, Cultured, Discriminant Analysis, Energy Metabolism, Inflammation, Least-Squares Analysis, Lipid Metabolism, Mice, Molecular Imaging, Multivariate Analysis, Retinal Diseases, Retinal Ganglion Cells, Spectrum Analysis, Raman, Time Factors