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© 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. All rights reserved. This chapter provides a brief overview of general principles of reporting medical research studies with a particular focus on the following study designs: randomised controlled trials, analytical observational studies, and systematic reviews and meta-analyses. Health-related research can be divided into two broad groups: experimental and observational. A typical example of experimental research design is a randomised controlled trial (RCT). Reporting guidelines provide structured advice on the minimum information to be included in an article reporting a particular type of medical research. There are three main types of observational design: cohort studies, case-control studies and cross-sectional surveys. A minimum set of recommendations for reporting these studies is specified in the STROBE Statement. Similar to the CONSORT Statement. The Enhancing the Quality and Transparency of Health Research (EQUATOR) Network is an international initiative that aims to improve the reliability and value of the medical research literature by promoting transparent and accurate reporting of research studies.

Original publication





Book title

Research Methods for Postgraduates: Third Edition

Publication Date



429 - 439