Trajectory of physical activity after hip fracture: An analysis of community-dwelling individuals from the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing.
Aboelmagd T., Dainty JR., MacGregor A., Smith TO.
INTRODUCTION: To analyse physical activity participation in a community-dwelling people in England with hip fracture the interval prior to fracture, in the fracture recovery period, and a minimum of two years post-fracture. MATERIALS AND METHODS: 215 individuals were identified from the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing cohort (2002-2014) who sustained a hip fracture following a fall and for whom data were available on physical activity participation relating to the period pre-fracture, within-fracture recovery phase and post-fracture (minimum of two years). Physical activity was assessed using the validated ELSA physical activity questionnaire. Prevalence of 'low' physical activity participation was calculated and multi-level modelling analyses were performed to explore physical activity trajectories over the follow-up phase, and whether age, depression, gender and frailty were associated with physical activity participation. RESULTS: Prevalence of low physical activity participation within two years prior to hip fracture was 16.7% (95% Confidence Intervals (CI): 11.6% to 21.8%). This increased at the final follow-up phase to 21.3% (95% CI: 15.1% to 27.6%). This was not a statistically significant change (P = 0.100). Age (P = 0.005) and frailty (P < 0.001) were statistically significant explanatory variables (P = 0.005) where older age and greater frailty equated to lower physical activity participation. Neither gender (P = 0.288) nor depression (P = 0.121) were significant explanatory variables. CONCLUSION: Physical activity levels do not significantly change between pre-fracture to a minimum of two years post-hip fracture for community-dwelling individuals. This contrasts with previous reports of reduced mobility post-hip fracture, suggesting that 'physical activity' and 'mobility' should be considered as separate outcomes in this population.