Effect of nonmeat, high-protein supplementation on quality of life and clinical outcomes in older residents of care homes: a systematic review and meta-analysis.
Donaldson AIC., Smith TO., Alder S., Johnstone AM., De Roos B., Aucott LS., Gordon AL., Myint PK.
Context: Care home residents are at risk of malnutrition owing to reduced food intake, anabolic resistance in aging muscle, and a high prevalence of medical morbidity and functional dependency. There has been limited consensus regarding the effectiveness of a high-protein diet on quality of life or clinical outcomes in care home residents. Objective: The aim of this review was to evaluate the effectiveness of nonmeat, high-protein supplementation on health-related quality of life (HRQOL) and relevant clinical and nutritional outcomes in older people in a care home setting. Data Sources: The following databases were searched (to February 2018) for randomized controlled trials: Embase, AMED, CINAHL, MEDLINE, the Cochrane Central Registry of Controlled Trials, OpenGrey, clinicaltrials.gov, the WHO International Clinical Trials Registry Platform, the ISRCTN registry, and the NIHR Clinical Research Network Portfolio. Study Selection: Trials were selected if they assessed a nonmeat, high-protein dietary intervention provided to care home residents who were aged 65 years or older. Data Extraction: Data from included trials were extracted if they assessed care home residents aged 65 years or older and compared those residents who received protein supplementation with those who did not. Trial quality was assessed using the Cochrane risk-of-bias tool. Meta-analysis was undertaken when appropriate. Results: Seventeen studies with 1246 participants fulfilled the inclusion criteria. All studies were of low or moderate quality. There was no evidence of improved HRQOL when the Short Form 36 (SF-36) was used to assess outcomes (standardized mean difference [SMD] = -0.10; 95%CI, -0.51 to 0.31; P = 0.62), although significant improvement was seen in the 1 trial that used the EQ-5D instrument (SMD = 2.58; 95%CI, 2.05-3.10; P < 0.00001). Conclusions: Nonmeat, high-protein oral supplements can improve markers of nutritional status in care home residents. However, there is insufficient high-quality evidence to determine the effect of such supplements on HRQOL in older adults in care homes. Systematic Review Registration: PROSPERO registration number: CRD42015029313.