Cookies on this website
We use cookies to ensure that we give you the best experience on our website. If you click 'Continue' we'll assume that you are happy to receive all cookies and you won't see this message again. Click 'Find out more' for information on how to change your cookie settings.

We treated 22 patients with a diagnosis of primary frozen shoulder resistant to conservative treatment by manipulation under anaesthetic and arthroscopic release of the rotator interval, at a mean time from onset of 15 months (3 to 36). Biopsies were taken from this site and histological and immunocytochemical analysis was performed to identify the types of cell present. The tissue was characterised by the presence of fibroblasts, proliferating fibroblasts and chronic inflammatory cells. The infiltrate of chronic inflammatory cells was predominantly made up of mast cells, with T cells, B cells and macrophages also present. The pathology of frozen shoulder includes a chronic inflammatory response with fibroblastic proliferation which may be immunomodulated.

Original publication




Journal article


The Journal of bone and joint surgery. British volume

Publication Date





928 - 932


Nuffield Orthopaedic Centre, Windmill Road, Headington, Oxford OX3 7LD, UK.


Joint Capsule, Shoulder Joint, Fibroblasts, Humans, Joint Diseases, Bursitis, Biopsy, Arthroscopy, Range of Motion, Articular, Treatment Outcome, Manipulation, Orthopedic, Adult, Aged, Middle Aged, Female, Male