Identification of novel pro-alpha2(IX) collagen gene mutations in two families with distinctive oligo-epiphyseal forms of multiple epiphyseal dysplasia.
Holden P., Canty EG., Mortier GR., Zabel B., Spranger J., Carr A., Grant ME., Loughlin JA., Briggs MD.
Multiple epiphyseal dysplasia (MED) is a genetically heterogeneous disorder with marked clinical and radiographic variability. Traditionally, the mild "Ribbing" and severe "Fairbank" types have been used to define a broad phenotypic spectrum. Mutations in the gene encoding cartilage oligomeric-matrix protein have been shown to result in several types of MED, whereas mutations in the gene encoding the alpha2 chain of type IX collagen (COL9A2) have so far been found only in two families with the Fairbank type of MED. Type IX collagen is a heterotrimer of pro-alpha chains derived from three distinct genes-COL9A1, COL9A2, and COL9A3. In this article, we describe two families with distinctive oligo-epiphyseal forms of MED, which are heterozygous for different mutations in the COL9A2 exon 3/intron 3 splice-donor site. Both of these mutations result in the skipping of exon 3 from COL9A2 mRNA, but the position of the mutation in the splice-donor site determines the stability of the mRNA produced from the mutant COL9A2 allele.