Molecular and structural aspects of xenobiotic carbonyl metabolizing enzymes. Role of reductases and dehydrogenases in xenobiotic phase I reactions.
Oppermann UC., Maser E.
The major metabolic pathways involved in synthesis and disposition of carbonyl and hydroxyl group containing compounds are presented, and structural and functional characteristics of the enzyme families involved are discussed. Alcohol and aldehyde dehydrogenases (ADH, ALDH) participate in oxidative pathways, whereas reductive routes are accomplished by members of the aldo-keto reductase (AKR), short-chain dehydrogenases/reductases (SDR) and quinone reductase (QR) superfamilies. A wealth of biochemical, genetic and structural data now establishes these families to constitute important phase I enzymes.