Baseline phenotype and 30-day outcomes of people tested for COVID-19: an international network cohort including >3.32 million people tested with real-time PCR and >219,000 tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 in South Korea, Spain and the United States.
Golozar A., Lai LY., Sena AG., Vizcaya D., Schilling LM., Huser V., Nyberg F., Duvall SL., Morales DR., Alshammari TM., Abedtash H., Ahmed W-U-R., Alser O., Alghoul H., Zhang Y., Gong M., Guan Y., Areia C., Jonnagaddala J., Shah K., Lane JCE., Prats-Uribe A., Posada JD., Shah NH., Subbian V., Zhang L., Fernandes Abrahão MT., Rijnbeek PR., You SC., Casajust P., Roel E., Recalde M., Fernández-Bertolín S., Andryc A., Thomas JA., Wilcox AB., Fortin S., Blacketer C., DeFalco F., Natarajan K., Falconer T., Spotnitz M., Ostropolets A., Hripcsak G., Suchard M., Lynch KE., Matheny ME., Williams A., Reich C., Duarte-Salles T., Kostka K., Ryan PB., Prieto-Alhambra D.
Early identification of symptoms and comorbidities most predictive of COVID-19 is critical to identify infection, guide policies to effectively contain the pandemic, and improve health systems' response. Here, we characterised socio-demographics and comorbidity in 3,316,107persons tested and 219,072 persons tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 since January 2020, and their key health outcomes in the month following the first positive test. Routine care data from primary care electronic health records (EHR) from Spain, hospital EHR from the United States (US), and claims data from South Korea and the US were used. The majority of study participants were women aged 18-65 years old. Positive/tested ratio varied greatly geographically (2.2:100 to 31.2:100) and over time (from 50:100 in February-April to 6.8:100 in May-June). Fever, cough and dyspnoea were the most common symptoms at presentation. Between 4%-38% required admission and 1-10.5% died within a month from their first positive test. Observed disparity in testing practices led to variable baseline characteristics and outcomes, both nationally (US) and internationally. Our findings highlight the importance of large scale characterization of COVID-19 international cohorts to inform planning and resource allocation including testing as countries face a second wave.