Ex vivo mass cytometry analysis reveals a profound myeloid proinflammatory signature in psoriatic arthritis synovial fluid
Yager N., Cole S., Lara AL., Maroof A., Penkava F., Knight J., Bowness P., Al-Mossawi H.
<jats:title>Abstract</jats:title><jats:sec><jats:title>Objectives</jats:title><jats:p>A number of immune populations have been implicated in psoriatic arthritis (PsA) pathogenesis. This study used mass cytometry (CyTOF) combined with transcriptomic analysis to generate a high-dimensional dataset of matched PsA synovial fluid (SF) and blood leucocytes, with the aim of identifying cytokine production <jats:italic>ex vivo</jats:italic> in unstimulated lymphoid and myeloid cells.</jats:p></jats:sec><jats:sec><jats:title>Methods</jats:title><jats:p>Fresh SF and paired blood were either fixed or incubated with protein transport inhibitors for 6 h. Samples were stained with two CyTOF panels: a phenotyping panel and an intracellular panel, including antibodies to both T cell and myeloid cell secreted proteins. Transcriptomic analysis by gene array of key expanded cell populations and single-cell RNA-seq, and ELISA and LEGENDplex analysis of PsA SF were also performed.</jats:p></jats:sec><jats:sec><jats:title>Results</jats:title><jats:p>We observed marked changes in the myeloid compartment of PsA SF relative to blood, with expansion of intermediate monocytes, macrophages and dendritic cell populations. Classical monocytes, intermediate monocytes and macrophages spontaneously produced significant levels of the proinflammatory mediators osteopontin and CCL2 in the absence of any <jats:italic>in vitro</jats:italic> stimulation. By contrast minimal spontaneous cytokine production by T cells was detected. Gene expression analysis showed the genes for osteopontin and CCL2 to be amongst those most highly upregulated by PsA monocytes/macrophages; and both proteins were elevated in PsA SF.</jats:p></jats:sec><jats:sec><jats:title>Conclusions</jats:title><jats:p>Using multiomic analyses we have generated a comprehensive cellular map of PsA SF and blood to reveal key expanded myeloid proinflammatory modules in PsA of potential pathogenic and therapeutic importance.</jats:p></jats:sec>