Seek COVER: Development and validation of a personalized risk calculator for COVID-19 outcomes in an international network
Williams RD., Markus AF., Yang C., Salles TD., DuVall SL., Falconer T., Jonnagaddala J., Kim C., Rho Y., Williams A., Alberga A., An MH., Aragón M., Areia C., Burn E., Choi YH., Drakos I., Fernandes Abrahão MT., Fernández-Bertolín S., Hripcsak G., Kaas-Hansen BS., Kandukuri PL., Kors JA., Kostka K., Liaw S-T., Lynch KE., Machnicki G., Matheny ME., Morales D., Nyberg F., Park RW., Prats-Uribe A., Pratt N., Rao G., Reich CG., Rivera M., Seinen T., Shoaibi A., Spotnitz ME., Steyerberg EW., Suchard MA., You SC., Zhang L., Zhou L., Ryan PB., Prieto-Alhambra D., Reps JM., Rijnbeek PR.
ObjectiveTo develop and externally validate COVID-19 Estimated Risk (COVER) scores that quantify a patient’s risk of hospital admission (COVER-H), requiring intensive services (COVER-I), or fatality (COVER-F) in the 30-days following COVID-19 diagnosis.MethodsWe analyzed a federated network of electronic medical records and administrative claims data from 14 data sources and 6 countries. We developed and validated 3 scores using 6,869,127 patients with a general practice, emergency room, or outpatient visit with diagnosed influenza or flu-like symptoms any time prior to 2020. The scores were validated on patients with confirmed or suspected COVID-19 diagnosis across five databases from South Korea, Spain and the United States. Outcomes included i) hospitalization with pneumonia, ii) hospitalization with pneumonia requiring intensive services or death iii) death in the 30 days after index date.ResultsOverall, 44,507 COVID-19 patients were included for model validation. We identified 7 predictors (history of cancer, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, diabetes, heart disease, hypertension, hyperlipidemia, kidney disease) which combined with age and sex discriminated which patients would experience any of our three outcomes. The models achieved high performance in influenza. When transported to COVID-19 cohorts, the AUC ranges were, COVER-H: 0.69-0.81, COVER-I: 0.73-0.91, and COVER-F: 0.72-0.90. Calibration was overall acceptable.ConclusionsA 9-predictor model performs well for COVID-19 patients for predicting hospitalization, intensive services and fatality. The models could aid in providing reassurance for low risk patients and shield high risk patients from COVID-19 during de-confinement to reduce the virus’ impact on morbidity and mortality.