Characteristics and Outcomes of Over 300,000 Patients with COVID-19 and History of Cancer in the United States and Spain.
Roel E., Pistillo A., Recalde M., Sena AG., Fernández-Bertolín S., Aragón M., Puente D., Ahmed W-U-R., Alghoul H., Alser O., Alshammari TM., Areia C., Blacketer C., Carter W., Casajust P., Culhane AC., Dawoud D., DeFalco F., DuVall SL., Falconer T., Golozar A., Gong M., Hester L., Hripcsak G., Tan EH., Jeon H., Jonnagaddala J., Lai LYH., Lynch KE., Matheny ME., Morales DR., Natarajan K., Nyberg F., Ostropolets A., Posada JD., Prats-Uribe A., Reich CG., Rivera DR., Schilling LM., Soerjomataram I., Shah K., Shah NH., Shen Y., Spotniz M., Subbian V., Suchard MA., Trama A., Zhang L., Zhang Y., Ryan PB., Prieto-Alhambra D., Kostka K., Duarte-Salles T.
BACKGROUND: We described the demographics, cancer subtypes, comorbidities, and outcomes of patients with a history of cancer and coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Second, we compared patients hospitalized with COVID-19 to patients diagnosed with COVID-19 and patients hospitalized with influenza. METHODS: We conducted a cohort study using eight routinely collected health care databases from Spain and the United States, standardized to the Observational Medical Outcome Partnership common data model. Three cohorts of patients with a history of cancer were included: (i) diagnosed with COVID-19, (ii) hospitalized with COVID-19, and (iii) hospitalized with influenza in 2017 to 2018. Patients were followed from index date to 30 days or death. We reported demographics, cancer subtypes, comorbidities, and 30-day outcomes. RESULTS: We included 366,050 and 119,597 patients diagnosed and hospitalized with COVID-19, respectively. Prostate and breast cancers were the most frequent cancers (range: 5%-18% and 1%-14% in the diagnosed cohort, respectively). Hematologic malignancies were also frequent, with non-Hodgkin's lymphoma being among the five most common cancer subtypes in the diagnosed cohort. Overall, patients were aged above 65 years and had multiple comorbidities. Occurrence of death ranged from 2% to 14% and from 6% to 26% in the diagnosed and hospitalized COVID-19 cohorts, respectively. Patients hospitalized with influenza (n = 67,743) had a similar distribution of cancer subtypes, sex, age, and comorbidities but lower occurrence of adverse events. CONCLUSIONS: Patients with a history of cancer and COVID-19 had multiple comorbidities and a high occurrence of COVID-19-related events. Hematologic malignancies were frequent. IMPACT: This study provides epidemiologic characteristics that can inform clinical care and etiologic studies.