A polymorphism in the glucokinase gene that raises plasma fasting glucose, rs1799884, is associated with diabetes mellitus and prostate cancer: findings from a population-based, case-control study (the ProtecT study).
Murad AS., Smith GD., Lewis SJ., Cox A., Donovan JL., Neal DE., Hamdy FC., Martin RM.
Epidemiological studies have identified a positive association between prostate cancer and recent onset type 2 diabetes mellitus but an increasingly inverse association with greater duration of type 2 diabetes. The mecha- nisms underlying these paradoxical associations are not clear. A single nucleotide polymorphism in the glucokinase gene, rs1799884, is associated with higher circulating plasma fasting glucose and with an increased risk of type 2 diabetes. We report a case-control study nested within the population-based Prostate testing for cancer and Treatment (ProtecT) study ISRCTN20141297. Men aged 50-69 years based around 9 UK cities were invited for a prostate specific antigen (PSA) test between June 2002 and November 2006. 1,551 cases and 2,993 controls were geno-typed. We observed suggestive evidence for a positive association between the AA variant rs1799884 and PSA-detected prostate cancer (OR(AA V GG)= 1.40, 95% CI= 0.95 to 2.07). There was little evidence that this effect was greater for more advanced stage/ grade cancers (OR(AA V GG)= 1.78, 95% CI= 0.99 to 3.21) versus less advanced cancers (OR(AA V GG)= 1.23, 95% CI= 0.77 to 1.94) (p for interaction = 0.33). The rs1799884 genotype was not associated with PSA concentration, suggesting that any effect on prostate cancer risk is not attributable to PSA detection bias. Our results provide suggestive evidence for a link between a genotype associated with type 2 diabetes mellitus and PSA-detected prostate cancer. We hypothesize that hyperglycaemia may be important in mediating this relationship.