Hermansky-Pudlak syndrome type 1 causes impaired anti-microbial immunity and inflammation due to dysregulated immunometabolism.
Cavounidis A., Pandey S., Capitani M., Friedrich M., Cross A., Gartner L., Aschenbrenner D., Kim-Schulze S., Lam YK., Berridge G., McGovern DPB., Kessler B., Fischer R., Klenerman P., Hester J., Issa F., Torres EA., Powrie F., Gochuico BR., Gahl WA., Cohen L., Uhlig HH.
Hermansky-Pudlak syndrome (HPS) types 1 and 4 are caused by defective vesicle trafficking. The mechanism for Crohn's disease-like inflammation, lung fibrosis, and macrophage lipid accumulation in these patients remains enigmatic. The aim of this study is to understand the cellular basis of inflammation in HPS-1. We performed mass cytometry, proteomic and transcriptomic analyses to investigate peripheral blood cells and serum of HPS-1 patients. Using spatial transcriptomics, granuloma-associated signatures in the tissue of an HPS-1 patient with granulomatous colitis were dissected. In vitro studies were conducted to investigate anti-microbial responses of HPS-1 patient macrophages and cell lines. Monocytes of HPS-1 patients exhibit an inflammatory phenotype associated with dysregulated TNF, IL-1α, OSM in serum, and monocyte-derived macrophages. Inflammatory macrophages accumulate in the intestine and granuloma-associated macrophages in HPS-1 show transcriptional signatures suggestive of a lipid storage and metabolic defect. We show that HPS1 deficiency leads to an altered metabolic program and Rab32-dependent amplified mTOR signaling, facilitated by the accumulation of mTOR on lysosomes. This pathogenic mechanism translates into aberrant bacterial clearance, which can be rescued with mTORC1 inhibition. Rab32-mediated mTOR signaling acts as an immuno-metabolic checkpoint, adding to the evidence that defective bioenergetics can drive hampered anti-microbial activity and contribute to inflammation.