Autophagy orchestrates the crosstalk between cells and organs.
Piletic K., Alsaleh G., Simon AK.
Over the recent years, it has become apparent that a deeper understanding of cell-to-cell and organ-to-organ communication is necessary to fully comprehend both homeostatic and pathological states. Autophagy is indispensable for cellular development, function, and homeostasis. A crucial aspect is that autophagy can also mediate these processes through its secretory role. The autophagy-derived secretome relays its extracellular signals in the form of nutrients, proteins, mitochondria, and extracellular vesicles. These crosstalk mediators functionally shape cell fate decisions, tissue microenvironment and systemic physiology. The diversity of the secreted cargo elicits an equally diverse type of responses, which span over metabolic, inflammatory, and structural adaptations in disease and homeostasis. We review here the emerging role of the autophagy-derived secretome in the communication between different cell types and organs and discuss the mechanisms involved.