Mahajan A., Verma S., Tandon V.
Osteoarthritis (OA) is a chronic degenerative disorder of multifactorial etiology characterized by loss of articular cartilage and periarticular bone remodelling. OA causes joint pain, typically worse with weight-bearing and activity as well as can manifest with stiffness after inactivity. It can present as localized, generalized or as erosive osteoarthritis. Primary osteoarthritis is mostly related to aging, whereas, secondary osteoarthritis is caused by another disease or condition. X-rays, arthrocentesis and arthroscopy remain the main diagnostic tools. Blood tests are performed to exclude diseases that can cause secondary osteoarthritis. The treatment of osteoarthritis includes non-pharmacological management, pharmacological treatment in the form of drugs which can modify symptoms, symptomatic slow acting drugs for OA or structure modifying OA drugs depending upon the clinical requirement of the patient. Patients with persistent pain and progressive limitation of daily activities despite medical management may be the candidates for surgery.