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Parvovirus 4 (PARV4) is a DNA virus frequently associated with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) infections, but its clinical significance is unknown. We studied the prevalence of PARV4 antibodies in 2 cohorts of HIV- and HCV-infected individuals (n = 469) and the correlations with disease status. We found that PARV4 infection frequently occurred in individuals exposed to bloodborne viruses (95% in HCV-HIV coinfected intravenous drug users [IDUs]). There were no correlations between PARV4 serostatus and HCV outcomes. There was, however, a significant association with early HIV-related symptoms, although because this was tightly linked to both HCV status and clinical group (IDU), the specific role of PARV4 is not yet clear.

Original publication




Journal article


The Journal of infectious diseases

Publication Date





1816 - 1820


Nuffield Department of Medicine, Peter Medawar Building for Pathogen Research, University of Oxford, Oxford.


Swiss HIV Cohort Study, Humans, Parvoviridae Infections, Hepatitis C, HIV Infections, Antibodies, Viral, Seroepidemiologic Studies, Female, Male