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Microbubble ultrasound contrast agents have been in clinical use for more than two decades, during which time their range of applications has increased to encompass echocardiography, Doppler enhancement, perfusion studies and molecular imaging, as well as a number of therapeutic applications including drug delivery, gene therapy, high-intensity focused ultrasound treatments and sonothrombolysis. The aim of this article is to review the different types of microbubble agent, their physical behaviour and the mechanisms underlying their effectiveness in imaging and therapeutic applications.

Original publication

DOI

10.1159/000203122

Type

Journal article

Journal

Cerebrovascular diseases (Basel, Switzerland)

Publication Date

01/2009

Volume

27 Suppl 2

Pages

1 - 13

Addresses

Department of Mechanical Engineering, University College London, London, UK. e_stride@meng.ucl.ac.uk

Keywords

Humans, Free Radicals, Liposomes, Emulsions, Contrast Media, Ultrasonography, Doppler, Thrombolytic Therapy, Microbubbles, Hot Temperature